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蟹爪蘭怎樣栽培 蟹爪蘭栽培養護技術

拉丁名 zygocactustruncatus

    形態特徵與品種: 蟹爪蘭為附生性小灌木。葉狀莖扁平多節,肥厚,卵圓形,鮮綠色,先端截形,邊緣具粗鋸齒。花著生於莖的頂端,花被開張反卷,花色有淡紫、黃、紅、純白、粉紅、橙和雙色等。近年來,英國、法國、德國、美國、日本和丹麥等國的花卉育種家,都做了大量的雜交育種研究,選育出200個栽培品種。常見的有白花的聖誕白(WhiteChristmas)、多塞(Dorthe)、吉納(Gina)、雪花(Snowflake),黃色的金媚(GoldCharm)、聖誕火焰(ChristmasFlame)、金幻(GoldFantasy)、劍橋(Cambridge),橙色的安特(Anette)、弗裏多(Frida),紫色的馬多加(Madonga),粉色的卡米拉(Camilla)、麥迪斯托(Madisto)和伊娃(Eva)等。

    常見的同屬觀賞種有莖淡紫色、花紅色的圓齒蟹爪蘭(S.crenatus),花芽白色、開放時粉紅色的美麗蟹爪蘭(S.delicatus),花洋紅色的紅花蟹爪蘭(S.altensteinii)。還有拉塞爾蟹爪蘭(S.russelliana)、巴克利蟹爪蘭(S.buckleyi)、鈍角蟹爪蘭(S.obtusangula)和聖誕仙人掌(S.bridgesii)等,它們既是觀賞種,又是育種的好材料。

    同時,根據花期的早晚,蟹爪蘭又分為早生種、中生種和晚生種。蟹爪蘭的花期從9月至翌年4月,鮮豔絢麗的蟹爪蘭給人們帶來了春天的氣息。

    生物學特性:蟹爪蘭原產南美巴西。屬附生類仙人掌,在自然環境中,常附生於樹上或潮濕山谷,因而栽培環境要求半陰、濕潤。夏季避免烈日暴曬和雨淋,冬季要求溫暖和光照充足。土壤需肥沃的腐葉土、泥炭、粗沙的混合土壤,酸鹼度在pH5.5~6.5。蟹爪蘭的生長期適溫為18~23℃,開花溫度以10~15℃為宜,不超過25℃,以維持15℃最好,冬季溫度不低於10℃。蟹爪蘭屬短日照植物,由此在短日照條件下才能孕蕾開花。蟹爪蘭在原產地由鳥類授粉,室內栽培時需人工授粉才能正常結實。

    繁殖方法:常用扡插、嫁接和播種繁殖。

    扡插繁殖:選擇健壯、肥厚的莖節,切下1~2節,放陰涼處2~3天,待切口稍乾燥後再插入沙床,基質為比例4:1的泥炭和沙,插床溫度為15~20℃。插床濕度不宜過大,以免切口過濕腐爛。插後2~3周開始生根,4周後可盆栽。

    嫁接繁殖:比扡插繁殖生長勢旺,開花早。常在5~6月和9~10月進行,砧木用量天尺、虎刺,需大盆栽培的選用梨果仙人掌。接穗以2~3莖節為宜,下端削成鴨嘴狀,與砧木的楔口接合,用仙人掌長刺或消毒的牙籤插入固定。一般一株砧木可接3個接穗,每個接穗相距120°。嫁接後植株放半陰處養護,保持較高的空氣濕度。如嫁接後10天內接穗仍保持新鮮硬挺,即已癒合成活,需精心養護,1個月後嫁接成活植株可轉入正常管理。

    播種繁殖:蟹爪蘭需人工授粉後才能結果。常採用室內盆播,發芽適溫22~24℃,播種基質用泥炭、腐葉土、粗沙的混合土壤,播前需高溫消毒。蟹爪蘭種子播後,盆口蓋上玻璃,以便保持盆土濕度。播後5~9天發芽。幼苗生長較慢,應謹慎管理。

    栽培管理:繁殖後的新枝,可用12釐米普通塑膠盆或吊盆栽培,每盆栽植3株。栽後正值夏季,室內應保持通風涼爽,溫度過高或空氣乾燥,對莖節生長均不利,有時發生莖節萎縮死亡。生長期每半月施肥1次。秋季增施1~2次磷鉀肥。嫁接新枝,在澆水、施肥時,注意不濺汙嫁接癒合處,以免發生腐爛。當年能開花20~30朵,培養2~3年後一盆能開上百朵。扡插植株,一般栽培2~3年後需重新扡插更新。蟹爪蘭開花時,室溫不宜高,以10~15℃為宜,花期可持續2~3個月,單花一般開放1周後凋萎。花期不要隨便搬動,以免斷莖落花。花後出現一般較短的休眠狀態,應控制澆水、停止施肥,待莖節長出新芽後,再行正常肥水管理。若花後澆水量過大,根系容易腐爛,莖節萎縮死亡。蟹爪蘭如需要提前開花應市,可進行短日照處理,每天進行8小時的短日照遮光處理可提前1個月開花,進入市場。

    病蟲害防治:蟹爪蘭常發生炭疽病、腐爛病和葉枯病危害葉狀莖,特別在高溫高濕情況下,發病嚴重。發生嚴重的植株應拔除集中燒毀。病害發生初期,用50%多菌靈可濕性粉劑500倍液,每旬噴灑1次,共噴3次。介殼蟲危害嚴重時,葉狀莖表面佈滿白色介殼,使植株生長衰弱,被害部呈黃白色。如被害植株較輕,可用竹片刮除,嚴重時用25%亞胺硫磷乳油800倍液噴殺。

    產後處理:蟹爪蘭無論盆栽或吊盆栽培,均適合窗臺。門庭入口處和展覽大廳裝飾,頓時滿室生輝,美勝錦簾。特別垂掛吊盆,反卷的花朵,鮮豔可愛,是極好的室內裝飾植物。蟹爪蘭作為商品盆栽花卉還是非常有開發價值。盆栽蟹爪蘭是極好的元旦、春節用花,多彩的蟹爪蘭,十分誘人,市場需求看好。只要品種搭配好,花期可從9月至翌年5月。通過短日照處理,花期能更長。

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